Axial spondylarthritis is a general term that includes:
Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) – Where there is visible changes to yours spinal x-ray mainly to sacroiliac joint (one or both).
Non-Radiographic Axial Spondylarthritis – You may be diagnosed with this by a specialist or your GP where there is no changes in x ray but visible inflammation on MRI.
Before considering an X-ray or an MRI, your Physiotherapist or GP will be looking for various other symptoms such as your age, when you started to experience the back pain, and, duration of the symptoms. This must be before the age of 45 and should have had back pain for more than 3 months. If you meet this criterion then your physiotherapist or GP will look for other symptoms:
If you are under 45 and have back pain for more than 3 months and also have 4 or more above mentioned symptoms, then your Physiotherapist or GP may consider sending you to a Rheumatologist. A Rheumatologist is a specialist in conditions affecting muscles and joints, they will carry out further tests that may include X-ray/MRI with or without blood tests.
It’s a painful, progressive form of inflammatory arthritis. It mainly affects the spine but can also affect other joints, tendons and ligaments. It can also give you symptoms such as foot pain (known as plantar fasciitis) heel pain (Achilles tendinopathy), bowel irritation and red eye (Uveitis).
There is no cure for Axial spondylarthritis however, treatment is available to relieve symptoms and help prevent its progression, as well as learning to self-manage.
Often you will be started with lowest effective dosage of NSAID’s such as Ibuprofen or Naproxen to fight the inflammation along with gastroprotective medication. If your Rheumatologist think that you have a form of Severe Active Axial Spondylarthritis then they may start you on medications known as Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDS) to slow down the disease progression. However, please note that DMARDS is an umbrella term for several medication which comes under this category.